Thì hiện tại đơn trong tiếng anh (Present Simple)

Thì hiện tại đơn trong tiếng anh

Mở đầu series các thì trong tiếng anh, là thì hiện tại đơn (Present Simple). Nó là thì hay gặp trong giao tiếp cũng như trong bài thi. Vì vậy ZAEnglish đã biên soạn bài viết này nhằm giúp bạn có thể hiểu cấu trúc, cách dùng hay dấu hiệu nhận biết để dễ dàng hiểu nó. Mời bạn theo dõi

1. Thì hiện tại đơn là gì?

Thì hiện tại đơn (Simple Present hoặc Present Simple) được sử dụng để chỉ một hành động lặp lại nhiều lần hoặc một sự thật hiển nhiên diễn ra trong thời gian hiện tại

2. Công thức thì hiện tại đơn

(+) Khẳng định

Động từ “to be”

Động từ thường

S + am/is/are + O

Trong đó: I ⇒ am

Ex: I am a student.

You/We/They ⇒ are

Ex: They are students.

He/Shellt ⇒ is

Ex: He is a student.

S + V(s/es) + O

Trong đó:

I/You/We/They ⇒ V (nguyên thể)

Ex: I listen to music

He/Shellt ⇒ V(s/es)

Ex: She listens to music.

 

(-) Phủ định

Động từ “to be”

Động từ thường

S + am/is/are + not + O

Ex: She is not my mother.

S + do not /does not + V_inf

Ex: I don’t listen to music.

(?) Nghi vấn

Động từ “to be”

Động từ thường

Am/is/are + S + 0

Ex: Are you a teacher?

Yes, I am/No, I am not.

Do/Does + S + V_inf?

Ex: Do you listen to music?

Yes, I do / No, I don’t.

Lưu ý:

Thì hiện tại đơn

Một số quy tắc thêm s/es:

Thêm “es” vào sau những động từ tận cùng bằng chữ: O, s, ch, sh, x, Z

  • go → goes
  • watch → watches
  • mix → mixes
  • miss → misses
  • brush → brushes
  • buzz — buzzes

Nếu trước “y” là một phụ âm thì đổi “y” thành “i” rồi thêm “es”

  • Study → studies
  • Cry → cries
  • Fly → flies

Ngoại lệ: Nếu trước “y” là một nguyên âm thì chỉ thêm “s

  • Say → says
  • Stay → stays
  • Play → plays

Đối với have khi đi với chủ ngữ ngôi thứ 3 số ít thì have → has

Ex: Mary has many dolls. (Mary có rất nhiều búp bê)

3. Cách dùng thì hiện tại đơn

Diễn tả hành động thực tế ở hiện tại có thể tồn tại trong một thời gian dài (permanent action); hoặc diễn tả một đặc tính, một thói quen hay hành động có tính lặp đi lặp lại trong hiện tại.

Dấu hiệu nhận biết thì hiện tại đơn: thường có trạng từ chỉ tần suất (adverb of frequency): always, usually, often, rarely, never, …

Eg:

– My mother usually gets up at 5.00. I sometimes get up at 5.30.

– He lives in a small house. He works in an ofice. He has 2 children.

Diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên hay một chân lí.

Eg: The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.

Diễn tả sự việc xảy ra theo kế hoạch bằng thời gian biểu ví dụ như: Kế hoạch giờ tàu, chuyến bay, xem phim, lịch thi đấu,…

Eg:

– The train leaves Hanoi at 10.00 and arrives in Danang at 3.30.

– What time does the film start?

Diễn tả hành động tương lai trong mệnh đề thời gian và trong mệnh đề If câu điều kiện loại I.

  • If + S + V (present simple), S + will + V_inf
  • When/ As soon as…+ S + V (present simple), S + will + V_inf

Thì hiện tại đơn dùng trong các mệnh đề thời gian(time clauses) nghĩa là những mệnh đề bắt đầu bằng when, while as soon as, before, after….

Eg:

– If it rains, we won’t play tennis.

– When she leaves school, she will work for this company.

4. Dấu hiệu nhận biết

Trong câu httđ xuất hiện các từ:

Trạng từ chỉ tần suất:

  • Always, constantly: Luôn luôn
  • Usually, frequently: Thường thường
  • Sometimes, occasionally: Thỉnh thoảng
  • Often: Thường
  • Hardly / Rarely/ Seldom: Hiếm khi
  • Never: Không bao giờ

Vị trí của trạng từ chỉ tần suất là:

Trước động từ thường He usually goes to the bookstore.

Sau động từ “to be”.

I am usually hungry in the afternoon.

  •  Every day/ week/ month… mỗi ngày/ tuần/ tháng
  • In the morning/ afternoon/ evening
  • All the time, now and then, once in a while

Bài tập thì hiện tại đơn trong tiếng anh

5. Bài tập thì hiện tại đơn

Câu hỏi

Bài 1: Dùng “do not” hoặc “does not” để hoàn thành những câu sau

  1. I ……. prefer coffee.
  2. She ……. ride a bike to her office.
  3. Their friends ……. live in a small house.
  4. They ……. do the homework on weekends.
  5. Mike ….. play soccer in the afternoons.
  6. The bus ……. arrive at 8.30 a.m.
  7. We …… go to bed at midnight.
  8. My brother ……. finish work at 8 p.m

Bài 2: Dùng “do”, “does”, “do not” hoặc “does not” để hoàn thành những câu sau:

  1.  ……. Jack like eating hamburgers? => Yes, ……..
  2. ……. you get up early on Sundays? => No, ……..
  3. ……. the students always work hard for the exam? => No, …….
  4. …… the train leave at noon every day? => Yes, …….
  5. …… he often play the guitar? => No,………
  6. ……. they take a taxi to school every morning? => Yes, ……..
  7. …… Anna and Daisy visit their old teachers on winter holidays? => No, .
  8. …… water boil at 100 degrees Celsius? => Yes, …….

Bài 3: Chia động từ trong ngoặc

  1. Robin (play)……….football every Sunday.
  2. We (have)……….a holiday in December every year.
  3. He often (go)……….to work late.
  4. The moon (circle)……….around the earth.
  5. The flight (start……….at 6 a.m every Thursday.
  6. Peter (not/ study)………very hard. He never gets high scores.
  7. My mother often (teach)……….me English on Saturday evenings.
  8. I like Math and she (like)………Literature.
  9. My sister (wash)……….dishes every day.
  10. They (not/ have)……….breakfast every morning.

Bài 4: Chia động từ trong ngoặc và thêm trạng từ chỉ tần suất:

  1. My brothers (sleep) on the floor. (often) ⇒
  2. He (stay) up late? (sometimes) ⇒
  3. I (do) the housework with my brother. (always) ⇒
  4. Peter and Mary (come) to class on time. (never) ⇒
  5. Why Johnson (get) good marks? (always) ⇒
  6. You (go) shopping? (usually) ⇒
  7. She (cry). (seldom) ⇒
  8. My father (have) popcorn. (never) ⇒

Bài 5: Điền động từ thích hợp vào ô trống với hình thức đúng của nó:

Mary is a teacher. She teaches English. The children love her and they (1)………a lot from her. Mary (2)………home at 3.00 and (3)………lunch. Then she sleeps for an hour. In the afternoon she (4)………Swimming or she cleans her house. Sometimes, she (5)………her aunt and (6)………tea with her. Every Sunday she does the shopping with her friends.

Bài 6: Gạch chân câu trả lời đúng

  1.  I don’t stay/ doesn’t stay at home.
  2. We don’t wash/ doesn’t wash the family car.
  3. Doris don’t do/ doesn’t do her homework.
  4. They don’t go/ doesn’t go to bed at 8.30 pm.
  5. Kevin don’t open/ doesn’t open his workbook.
  6. Our hamster don’t eat/doesn’t eat apples.
  7. You don’t chat/ doesn’t chat with your friends.
  8. She don’t usel doesn’t use a ruler.
  9. Max, Frank and Steve don’t skate/ doesn’t skate in the yard.
  10. The boy don’t throw/doesn’t throw stones

Bài 7: Khoanh tròn đáp án đúng

1. I …….Louisiana state University.

A. Am attending

B. Attend

C. Was attending

D. Attended

2. He will take the dog out for a walk as soon as he ……. dinner.

A. Finish

B. Finishes

C. Will finish

D. Shall have finished

3. The dancing club… …..north of the city.

A. Lays

B. Lies

C. Located

D. Lain

4. I don’t understand this sentence. What…………..?

A. Does mean this word

B. Have this word mean

C. Means this word

D. Does this word mean

5. John… …..tennis once or twice a week.

A. Usually play

B. Is usually playing

C. Usually plays

D. Have usually played

6. I usually …….away at weekends.

A. Have gone

B. Goes

C. Am going

D. Go

7. The earth……… round the sun.

A. Go

B. Has gone

C. Went

D. Goes

8. I come from Canada. Where ……..you ……..from?

A. Do/come

B. Did/come

C. Are coming

D. Have/come

9. Ann……..tea very often.

A. Doesn’t drink

B. Don’t drink

C. Didn’t drink

D. Dasn’t drunken

10. The sun………..in the East.

A. Is rising

B. Rose

C. Has risen

D. Rises

11. It is a nice day. I ……….we go out for a walk.

A. Suggested

B. Suggest

C. Is suggesting

D. Are suggesting

12. Bad driving often…….many accidents.

A. Caused

B. Had caused

C. Causes

D. Has cause

13. The Olympic Games…….every four years.

A. Take place

B. Takes place

C. Took place

D. Is taking place

14. What time……the banks close in Britain?

A. Do B.

Did

C. Does

D. Can

15. Water at 100 degrees Celsius.

A. Boiling

B. Boils

C. Is boiling

D. Boil

16. Bettina usually television in the evening.

A. Watches

B. Watching

C. Watch

D. Has watched

17. I usually to school by bus.

A. Went

B. Am

C. Go

D. Have gone

18. Every twelve months, the Earth………………. the Sun.

A. Circles

B. Circled

C. Has circled

D. Is circling

19. I’ll come to see you before I …………….. for the United States.

A. Leave

B. Will leave

C. Have left

D. Am leaving

20. I never …………studying

A. Give up

B. Gives up

C. Are giving up

D. Gave up
……….
Bài 8: Chia động từ trong ngoặc

  1.  The swimming pool (open) … . . . . . . . … at 9:00 and (close)……….. at 18:30 everyday.
  2. George (not go) …………….to the cinema very often.
  3. I have a car, but I (not use)… … …..it very often.
  4. How many languages (you/ speak) ………………..
  5. Where (she/come) …………………… from?
  6. (You/ live) …. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ….near here?
  7. Don’t try to use that telephone. It (not/work) ……..
  8. “Have a cigarette” “No, thanks. I (not/ smoke) ……………….
  9. How often (you/ watch) ……………….. television?
  10. When he (finish) ………………. his work, he will help you.

Đáp án

Bài 1.

1. I don’t prefer coffee.

2. She doesn’t ride a bike to her office.

3. Their friends don’t live in a small house.

4. They don’t do the homework on weekends.

5. Mike doesn’t play soccer in the afternoons.

6. The bus doesn’t arrive at 8.30 a.m.

7. We don’t go to bed at midnight.

8. My brother doesn’t finish work at 8 p.m.

Bài 2:

1. Does Jack like eating hamburgers? => Yes, he does.

2. Do you get up early on Sundays? => No, I don’t/ I do not.

3. Do the students always work hard for the exam? => No, they don’t/ they do not.

4. Does the train leave at noon every day? => Yes, it does.

5. Does he often play the guitar? => No, he doesn’t/ he does not.

6. Do they take a taxi to school every morning? => Yes, they do.

7. Do Anna and Daisy visit their old teachers on winter holidays? => No, they don’t/ they do not.

8. Does water boil at 100 degrees Celsius? => Yes, it does.

Bài 3:

1. Robin (play) plays football every Sunday.

2. We (have) have a holiday in December every year.

3. He often (go) goes to work late.

4. The moon (circle) circles around the earth.

5. The flight (start) starts at 6 a.m every Thursday.

6. Peter (not/ study) doesn’t study very hard. He never gets high scores.

7. My mother often (teach) teaches me English on Saturday evenings.

8. I like Math and she (like) likes Literature.

9. My sister (wash) washes dishes every day.

10. They (not/ have) don’t have/ do not have breakfast every morning

Bài 4:

1. My brothers often sleep on the floor.

2. Does he sometimes stay up late?/ Does he stay up late sometimes?

3. I always do the housework with my brother.

4. Peter and Mary never come to class on time.

5. Why does Johnson always get good marks?

6. Do you usually go shopping?

7. She seldom cries.

8. My father never has popcorn.

Bài 5: Mary is a teacher. She teaches English. The children love her and they

(1) learn a lot from her. Mary

(2) comes home at 3.00 and

(3) has lunch. Then she sleeps for an hour. In the afternoon she

(4) goes swimming or she cleans her house. Sometimes she

(5) meets her aunt and

(6) drinks tea with her. Every Sunday she does the shopping with her friends.

Bài 6:

1) I don’t stay at home.

2) We don’t wash the family car.

3) Doris doesn’t do her homework.

4) They don’t go to bed at 8.30 pm.

5) Kevin doesn’t open his workbook.

6) Our hamster doesn’t eat apples.

7) You don’t chat with your friends.

8) She doesn’t use a ruler.

9) Max, Frank and Steve don’t skate in the yard.

10) The boy doesn’t throw stones.

Bài 7:

1. B

2. B

3. B

4. D

5. C

6. D

7. D

8. A

9. A

10. D

11. B

12.C

13. A

14. A

15. B

16. A

17.C

18. A

19.A

20. A

Bài 8:

1. The swimming pool opens at 9:00 and closes at 18:30 everyday.

2. George doesn’t go to the cinema very often.

3. I have a car, but I don’t use it very often.

4. How many languages do you speak?

5. Where does she come from?

6. Do you live near here?

7. Don’t try to use that telephone. It doesn’t work

8. “Have a cigarette” “No, thanks. I don’t smoke”

9. How often do you watch television?

10. When he finishes his work, he will help you.

Bài viết tiếp theo trong series 12 thì ngữ pháp trong tiếng anh, là thì hiện tại tiếp diễn mới bạn theo dõi!

Thì hiện tại đơn trong tiếng anh (Present Simple)

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